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Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
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Department ofVertebrate Zoology

Division of Fishes

Barracuda
Carl Hansen
© Smithsonian Institution
Carole Baldwin

Carole Baldwin

I. Continuing to work with Lee Weigt and Dave Smith on DNA Barcoding of western Atlantic fishes for the purposes of (1) reanalyzing species diversity; (2) resolving complex taxonomic issues; (3) identifying early life history stages; and (4) amassing genetic data and voucher specimens for future investigations of evolution of western Central Atlantic shorefishes. Collecting sites in 2010 included the Bahamas, Belize, Florida, and Texas (through participation by Diane Pitassy in a joint Smithsonian/ AMNH field expedition). Recent results include publication of a paper reconciling genetic lineages and species in western Atlantic Bathygobius (with master's student Luke Tornabene of Texas A&M University); identification of Belizean larval Apogon (with master's student Ángel Balam Jiménez, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México), descriptions of seven new species of the blennioid genus Starksia (with NMNH intern Cristina Castillo, Lee Weigt, and Ben Victor); and discovery of a new species of gobiesocid clingfish (Acyrtus - with NMNH volunteer intern Donald Griswold), a new lizardfish (Synodus - with NMNH volunteer intern Brendan Luther), a new bythitid (Petrotyx – with Peter Moeller), and a new soapfish (Rypticus). More than a dozen additional taxonomic issues illuminated by the molecular data await resolution through morphological study.

II. Beginning collaborative work with ANSP fellow Katriina Ilves to address questions related to patterns and processes of evolution in Caribbean shorefishes through phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses. This work will utilize the extensive (geographic and taxonomic) set of DNA extracts, preserved voucher specimens, and color photographs compiled through the DNA Barcoding effort.

III. Spearheading (with Lee Weigt) a collaborative effort between Smithsonian marine scientists and Substation Curacao (Netherland Antilles) to study deep-reef biodiversity off Curacao using a state-of-the-art submersible based at the Curacao Sea Aquarium. This effort will form the foundation of a deep-reef component for the new Smithsonian MarineGEO initiative. Collecting via the submersible is scheduled to begin mid 2011.

IV. Participating (through intern Cristina Castillo) in deepwater bottom trawling on the R/V Miguel Oliver along the Caribbean coast of Central America from Panama to Belize at the invitation of Ross Robertson (STRI). The deepwater fishes and invertebrates collected on this expedition will constitute important additions to NMNH archival collections and DNA biorepository.

IV. Participating (through intern Cristina Castillo) in deepwater bottom trawling on the R/V Miguel Oliver along the Caribbean coast of Central America from Panama to Belize at the invitation of Ross Robertson (STRI). The deepwater fishes and invertebrates collected on this expedition will constitute important additions to NMNH archival collections and DNA biorepository.

V. Working with 2010 NHRE intern, Jessica Glass, on evolutionary investigation of four genetic lineages of Bathygobius gobies.

VI. Concluding collaboration with Smithsonian Marine Science postdoctoral fellow, Amandine Vaslet, on the relative importance of mangroves and seagrass beds as fish feeding habitats based on carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures among mangrove fishes.

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Jeff Clayton

Jeff Clayton

Currently working with Stan Weitzman on descriptions of several Tyttocharax species from Peru and a new genus and species of characid from Colombia.

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Bruce Collette

Bruce B. Collette

Current research projects include: (1) a chapter on Beloniformes with Steve Walsh for a book on North American freshwater fishes being edited by Mel Warren and Brooks Burr; (2) completion of threat evaluation for all species of Scombridae, Istiophoridae, Xiphiidae, and Coryphaenidae for the IUCN Red List; (3) updating Fishes of Bermuda with William Smith-Vaniz and Brian Luckhurst; (4) apparent extinction of a Taiwan endemic halfbeak (with Kwang-Tsao Shao); (5) phylogenetic position of the genus Percarina in the Percidae (with former intern Malorie Hayes); (6) updating Fishes of the Gulf of Maine with Karsten Hartel; (7) sections on Belonidae, Scomberesocidae, and Hemiramphidae for Fishes of the western North Atlantic; (8) FAO world catalogue of beloniform fishes (with Nik Parin); (9) sexual dimorphism in the southeast Asian freshwater needlefish, Xenentodon (with Maurice Kottelat); (10) faunal study of the fishes of the West Wind Drift islands and sea mounts; (11) continued collection of tissue samples Gulf of Maine region for the Bar Code of Life project; and (12) continued participation in refinement of ITIS, the Integrated Taxonomic Information System (http:// www.itis.gov). Travel plans include chairing a synthesis meeting of the IUCN Tuna and Billfish Group in Fort Lauderdale in February, participating in the Annual Tuna Conference at Lake Arrowhead, CA in May and the 91st annual meeting of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists in Minneapolis, MN in July. Long-range studies continue on the systematics of the Scombroidei, Xiphioidei, Belonidae, Hemiramphidae, Zenarchopteridae, and Batrachoididae.

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Dave Johnson

Dave Johnson

Illustrated identification key and field guide to larval whalefishes (Family Cetomimidae, formerly Mirapinnidae) and Review of the bathypelagic stephanoberyciform fish family Cetomimidae, with descriptions of the tapetail larvae, bignose males, and whalefish females both with John Paxton; Ontogeny and homology of the skeletal elements that form the sucking disc of remoras (Teleostei, Echeneoidei, Echeneidae) with Ralf Britz; A "living fossil" eel from an undersea cave in Palau description with several Japanese co-authors; A comparative description of the dorsal and ventral gill-arch musculature of a new primitive eel family with Vic Springer; Ontogenetic fusion of the third and fourth pharyngobranchial in barbeled dragonfishes (Stomiidae, Teleostei) with a revision of the identity of the single posterior upper pharyngeal toothplate and upper jaw development in early stage holocentrids: a unique ontogenetic trajectory, both with Nalani Schnell; A comparative ontogenetic study of the tetraodontiform caudal complex and Ontogeny of the jaw apparatus and suspensorium of the Tetraodontiformes, both with Peter Konstantinidis; a remarkable rib/ swimbladder association in the Moonfish, Mene maculata (Menidae) with Julian Humphries; continue photography of NSMT and other larval fish specimens for planned book with Ralf Britz on larvae of marine fishes. In August I will co-teach the graduate course "Early Life History of Marine Fishes" http:// web.vims.edu/adv/657/?svr=www at Virginia Institute of Marine Science with Nalani Schnell (VIMS, College of William and Mary) and Ed Houde (CBL, University of Maryland).

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Les Knapp

Les Knapp

My current research efforts involve describing three new species of flatheads from the Western Indian Ocean plus a fourth with a broader Indo-Pacific range.

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Tom Munroe

Thomas A. Munroe

Current research focuses on taxonomic and systematic studies of flatfishes representing a variety of flatfish families, with focus especially on the families Cynoglossidae, Soleidae and Achiridae. Ongoing projects include a continuation of work investigating the taxonomy and systematics of flatfishes inhabiting waters around New Zealand in preparation for inclusion of a chapter in a book on marine fishes of New Zealand. Two manuscripts have been drafted based on last year's research including a revision of the Rhombosoleid genus, Peltorhamphus, including description of a new species. Several other potential new species in the New Zealand flatfish fauna have been identified and will require further study. The book chapter ultimately will include accounts and identification keys for the approximately 23 species of flatfishes reported from New Zealand waters. Other on-going projects include: (1) descriptions of new species of Symphurus from New Caledonia, Philippines (with Mao-Ying Lee), New Zealand, Australia (with Martin Gomon and Diane Bray), Indian Ocean, and hydrothermal vent regions of the central Pacific (with Jennifer Tyler and Verena Tunnicliffe). (2) Continued study and identification of collections of Symphurus and other flatfishes from French Polynesia and the Philippines. (3) Continued collaborative research with René Duplain and François Chapleau on American soles of the achirid genus Trinectes (Pleuronectiformes: Achiridae). One manuscript describing a new species of Trinectes from Pacific Colombia was recently submitted. A second manuscript comprising a revision of the achirid genus Trinectes is drafted and a third manuscript describing phylogenetic relationships among these species is also in preparation. (4) Work on the systematics of species of the flatfish genus Soleichthys also continues including a collaborative study with Dan Gledhill on the species occurring in waters off Queensland, Australia, including description of at least one new species. A second project on this genus will focus on describing a new species of Soleichthys from off the Philippines, and a third project (with Jack Randall) will describe a new species of Soleichthys and provide a redescription of the type species of the genus, Soleichthys heterorhinos. (5) Will write (with Francois Chapleau) an introductory chapter on the Pleuronectiformes including keys to families for a book in preparation on the fishes of the western Indian Ocean. (6) Work continues with Hank Brooks, Troy Tuckey and Wendy Lowery on an analysis of spatial and temporal distributions of flatfishes inhabiting Chesapeake Bay. (7) Longer-range studies continue on the taxonomy of Soleichthys, Symphurus, Cynoglossus and Paraplagusia from Australia and Indo- Pacific waters. Travel plans for this year include a trip to Te Papa Museum Fish Collection, New Zealand, to examine flatfishes curated there and to attend the 91st annual meeting of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists in Minneapolis, MN in July.

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Thomas Orrell

Thomas M. Orrell

Current research includes a molecular phylogeny and total evidence analysis of the Scombroidei with B. Collette, and G. D. Johnson and a total evidence analysis of the Sparidae with K. E. Carpenter.

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Lynne Parenti

Lynne R. Parenti

In 2010, I participated in a fieldtrip to Sulawesi, Indonesia, which resulted in collection of an array of new fish species that identify Sulawesi Tenggara (southeastern Sulawesi) as a unique and complex area of endemism. New species will be described jointly with Indonesian colleagues and a general summary presented at the Annual Meetings of the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists in July. Harry Grier, Florida Fish and Wildlife Research Institute, and I continue our broad surveys of gonad morphology of bony fishes, focused on the reproductively specialized atherinomorphs and expanded to include basal osteichthyans and a limited number of tetrapods and primitive vertebrates, including hagfishes. We are also working with Julie Mounts to develop a website on fish gonad morphology. Jiakun Song, Ocean University of Shanghai, and I continue our investigation of comparative neuroanatomy among fishes. Research trips this year include participation in an IUCN workshop, February, in Cambridge, UK, to assess Indo-Burma freshwater fish biodiversity.

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Dave Smith

David G. Smith

The following areas of research will be emphasized in 2011. (1) Eels of Taiwan. My main emphasis here is on the Congridae and Synaphobranchidae. This is leading into revisionary studies of both families, in collaboration with several foreign colleagues. (2) Eels of Moorea. Identification and description. (3) Trachinoid fishes of the subfamily Hemerocoetinae (Trichonotidae), with Dave Johnson. In our previous paper, we dealt with Pteropsaron and Osopsaron. I want to review the other genera (Acanthaphritis, Matsubaraea, Enigmapercis, and Squamicreedia), based on material currently on loan from other museums. (4) The muraenid genus Anarchias, with Joshua Reece and Erling Holm. We published a paper on the A. cantonensis group last year. Next up is the A. allardicei group. (5) Caribbean fish barcoding project, with Carole Baldwin and Lee Weigt. (6) A paper on Panturichthys fowleri should be finished this year, with two Turkish colleagues. (7) History of ichthyology at the Smithsonian and historical aspects of ASIH, with Inci Bowman My goals this year are to write more papers and finish working up much of the material I have on loan from other institutions.

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Jiakun Song

Jiakun Song

Current research focus is on understanding the new genotypical explanation of the peripheral innervation patterns for assessing morphological homologies in phylogenetic and systematic studies; to finish my manuscripts on innervation and homology of neuromast patterns in gobies and the dermal bones in teleosts; and to continue the work of phylogenetic analyses on pectoral-pelvic fin in acanthomorph fishes with Lynne R. Parenti.

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Vic Springer

Victor G. Springer

Study of the intrarelationships of the Carangidae, including description of new genera, with W.F. Smith Vaniz; a comparative description of the dorsal and ventral gill-arch musculature of a new primitive eel family with G.D. Johnson. Evaluation of newly collected specimens of blenniid fishes for possible description as new species. Preparation of some little known historical anecdotes pertaining to the Smithsonian Institution.

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Ken Tighe

Kenneth A. Tighe

Continues research on the eel family Chlopsidae including systematics of the genus Kaupichthys with a description of three new species in preparation and the redescription of the Indo-Pacific eel Xenoconger fryeri with Jack Randall. Also, he is looking at the genus Chilorhinus (working with Andrew Stewart of National Museum of New Zealand) with a possible new deep-water species from off Tonga. Other eel research continues as time permits.

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Rich Vari

Richard Vari

I am continuing a number of projects involving several orders of freshwater fishes in the Neotropics and Africa. Cristiano Moreira (Universidade Federal de São Paulo) and I are continuing our analysis of higher level relationships within the order Characiformes using morphological data. In a separate study, researchers from George Washington University and several Brazilian universities and I are exploring relationships within the Characiformes using several nuclear and mitochondrial genes with a particular focus on the relationships within a major clade in the Neotropics. A study of the ecological factors contributing to the diversification of Neotropical characiforms is underway in collaboration with researchers at several institutions in Colombia and Spain. Research Collaborator Carl Ferraris, Paul Skelton (South African Institute of Aquatic Biodiversity) and I continue our studies of the African catfish subfamily Doumeinae and are now focused on the description of a new basal genus within the subfamily endemic to the Congo River basin with the description of several new species. Former SI-predoctoral fellow, David De Santana (Museu Goeldi, Belem), and I are continuing our studies of the electrogenic knifefishes of the family Apteronotidae, with a focus on the phylogeny of the genus Apteronotus. Two papers dealing with species questions are also in preparation. A checklist of the freshwater fishes of Suriname is being developed for a volume dealing with the fishes of the Guianas in association with researchers from the University of Paramaribo, Muséum d'histoire naturelle, Geneva, and FMNH. Two other contributions for that volume are being prepared in collaboration with colleagues from INRA (France) and Oregon State University. Other ongoing projects include the studies of groups of catfishes in Argentina and Colombia with researchers from those countries, several papers involving descriptions of various characiforms with Brazilian colleagues, and development of chapters for a treatment of the fishes of the middle Rio Madeira. As time allows, I continue my long-term studies of the African characiform genera Nannocharax and Hemigrammocharax.

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Marilyn Weitzman

Marilyn Weitzman

Continuing studies of the Lebiasinidae with several projects ongoing. These include descriptions of new species of Pyrrhulina and Copella from Peru and Brazil. Continuing attempts at phylogenetic studies but these are difficult due to lack of sufficient numbers of specimens from known localities.

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Stan Weitzman

Stan Weitzman

The following papers, all in press, constitute primarily
what has occupied my research time recently. A
paper (1) by Luiz Malabarba, Stanley H. Weitzman,
John R. Burns, and Cristina L. C. Oliveira on two
new inseminating characid fishes from Southern
Brazil;
(2) a chapter on reproductive biology and phylogeny
of fishes in a new book on reproduction in fishes by
Robert Javonillo, John R. Burns and Stanley H.
Weitzman
and (3) a long paper by N.A. Menezes & S.H.
Weitzman on the systematics of the neotropical
freshwater

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Jeff Williams

Jeffrey T. Williams

Current work: description of four new species of Helcogramma from the western Pacific; description of new species of Manonichthys and Pseudochromis (Pseudochromidae) from the Philippines (with Tony Gill); revisionary studies on the Indo-Pacific blenniid genera Alticus and Andamia (Blenniidae); a chapter on Blenniidae for a book on the fishes of the western Indian Ocean has been written with Vic Springer. Species descriptions are in progress for several new species of Pacific marine shore fishes collected on recent expeditions. Expedition to survey the shore fish biodiversity and to obtain specimen photographs and tissue samples from fishes collected at the Marquesas Islands in French Polynesia will be carried out with French colleagues in September-October 2011 as part of the CORALSPOT Program.

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