| Long-tailed Voles need cool, moist habitats, so they are found mostly near the peaks of mountain ranges. Fruits and seeds make up the bulk of their diet, but they also eat fungi, bark, and leaves if necessary. Long-tailed Voles live less than one year on average, and females produce only two litters during that time, with an average of five pups per litter. Owls and hawks prey on them, as do some mammals, including martens, long-tailed weasels, and ermine.
Males are larger than females.
Merriam, C.H., 1888. Description of a new species of meadow mouse from the Black Hills of Dakota, p. 934. The American Naturalist, 22:934-935.
Mammal Species of the World
Mammalian Species, American Society of Mammalogists' species account
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