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Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History
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Goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara)
and Cigar minnows (Decapterus macarellus)

Goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara) and cigar minnows (Decapterus macarellus) by Douglas David Seifert

Offshore Jupiter, Florida, USA
by Douglas David Seifert, Jupiter, Florida, USA

Goliaths are the largest members of the grouper family and are endangered throughout their
range in the Atlantic Ocean. In autumn, they gather around deep-water wrecks, caves, and
ledges off the coasts of Florida to form mating aggregations. Schooling cigar minnows form dense
clouds around the groupers to seek protection from predatory fish, such as jacks and barracuda.

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