Incandescent areas are visible at the top of the growing Santiaguito lava dome in Guatemala. Rockfalls from the dome produce a glowing trail down its flanks. The Santiaguito dome began growing in 1922 in a large crater formed on the SW flank of Santa Maria volcano during a powerful explosive eruption in 1902. Dome growth has been continuous since 1922 and has produced a composite, elongated dome more than 3 km long. This photo of El Brujo, the westernmost vent, was taken in 1967.
A blocky dacitic lava flow that traveled to the SW from El Brujo vent of Santiaguito lava dome is seen in April 1963, a month after it ceased flowing. The slow-moving lava flow, which has a height of about 50 m, extended about 1.5 km from the vent. El Brujo vent, near the western end of the Santiaguito dome complex of Guatemala's Santa Maria volcano, is the youngest at Santiaguito and was the focus of increased effusive activity from 1959 to 1963.
The interior of a stratovolcano is dramatically revealed in a 1-km wide crater created on the SW flank of Guatemala's Santa Maria volcano during an eruption in 1902. The 1200-m-high wall exposes thin, light-colored lava flows that are interbedded with deposits of fragmental material produced during growth of the volcano. The 1902 eruption, the first in historical time at Santa Maria, was one of the world's largest during the 20th century.
Lahar deposits produced by redistribution of material shed off the Santiaguito lava dome, visible below the steam plume to the left of Guatemala's Santa Maria volcano, have had dramatic effects on downstream drainages. This December 1988 photo shows the Rio Tambor, SW of Santa Maria, filled bank-to-bank with debris. Bridges such as the one in the foreground have been frequently destroyed during rainy-season lahars, which have traveled 35 km or more from the volcano.
A small blocky lava dome fills the crater of Caliente vent on the Santiaguito lava dome of Guatemala's Santa Maria volcano on July 18, 1969. This was near the beginning of a period of renewed activity at the Caliente vent, on the eastern side of Santiaguito. Growth of the composite Santiaguito lava dome has been occurring since 1922.