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Collapse of the summit and flanks of volcanoes during major volcanic landslides creates large horseshoe-shaped depressions that open in the direction of the landslide. This 2.1 x 3.5 km horseshoe-shaped caldera at Iriga volcano in the Philippines was produced by a massive landslide that most likely occurred in 1628 AD. The resulting debris avalanche traveled more than 10 km to the SE and flowed into Lake Buhi at the upper right. This view is from the south, with the summit of Iriga at the extreme left.

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