Residents of Neira moved to the west side of the island on May 9, 1988, at the onset of the eruption of Banda Api, and began evacuating. Residents of nearby Gunung Api Island, where the eruption occurred, had been evacuated the previous two days. As many as 10,000 persons were evacuated during the eruption; the only people to lose their lives were four persons who disregarded evacuation orders.
A stone monument is inscribed with a list of eruptions from the Dieng volcanic complex in central Java. The second column from the right lists fatalities (most recently 149 in 1979), which have occurred many times as a result of phreatic explosions and toxic gas emissions. The designers of the monument have somewhat ominously left abundant space to record future events.
Mount Fuji provides a backdrop to a fireworks display at Lake Yamanaka, one of five lakes at the northern base of the volcano. Resort towns around the volcano sponsor summer festivals featuring elaborate displays of hanabi (fireworks). The line of diagonal lights extending up the right-hand side of Fuji-san are mountain huts along the ten stations of the Fuji-Yoshida climbing route, the most popular of the six major summer ascent routes.
The inexorable forces of nature often bring human efforts to a halt. Lava flows from the current east rift zone eruption of Hawaii's Kilauea volcano frequently overran the coastal highway, enveloping traffic signs such as this one. Efforts to reconstruct the highway were eventually abandoned in the face of continued vigorous production of lava flows that reached the coast over a broad area.
The Casa Diablo geothermal plant in the Long Valley caldera taps the high heat flow originating from a magma body beneath the Long Valley caldera. Several commercial and scientific exploratory holes have been drilled here to depths of 100 to 2000 m.
Residents of the city of Bacolor, 38 km SE of Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines, perservere in the face of widespread devastation from lahars (volcanic mudflows). They are walking on the surface of a solidified 5-m-deep deposit of volcanic mud next to wires that are the original electrical power lines formerly high above the street level. Houses and businesses in the background of this September 1995 photo are buried to 2nd-floor levels. Rainfall-induced lahars were expected to redistribute ash and debris from the 1991 eruption for as long as a decade.
Owners of a service station in the city of Bacolor, 38 km SE of Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines, fight a losing battle with lahars. On September 12, 1991 (upper left), 10 days after the end of the 1991 eruption, they dig out gas pumps buried by 1-m thick lahar deposits. By November 30 (upper right) they had raised the pumps to the new ground level. Three years later, in September 1994, the pumps had again been raised, to a surface half the height of the garage opening. A year later, the station was abandoned, and a 5-m-high lahar deposit filled the garage. Photos by Chris Newhall (U.S. Geological Survey).
Heavy ashfall from the June 15, 1991, eruption of Pinatubo volcano in the Philippines caused this World Airways DC-10 to set on its tail. About 4 cu km of ash was erupted on June 15. It accumulated to depths of 10-15 cm at this airfield at the Cubi Point Naval Air Station, 40 km SSW of Pinatubo.
New housing is under construction on a mudflow deposit that originated from Mount Rainier, partially obscured by clouds in the center background. The tree stump in the foreground, left for landscaping purposes at the entrance to the housing development, was buried by the Electron mudflow about 500 years ago.
This vehicle was parked near Meta Lake, 13 km NE of Mount St. Helens, within the area affected by the devastating lateral blast of May 18, 1980. Tree blowdown occurred to distances of about 30 km from the volcano. Most of the 57 fatalities produced by the eruption resulted from the lateral blast.