Popular Articles About Gateways:

Gupta, Ankia. 2009. The Basques Were Here. Smithsonian Magazine 39(11):27-30.

Malakoff, David. 2007. Uncovering Basques in Canada. American Archaeology 11(2):12-17.


Selected Literature

Barkham, Selma. 1980. A Note on the Strait of Belle Isle During the Period of Basque contact with Indians and Inuit. Etudes/Inuit/Studies 4(1-2):51058.

Belvin, Cleophas. 2006. The Forgotten Labrador: Kegashka to Blanc Sablon: a Short History of the Lower North Shore. Montreal: Queens University Press.

Bergeron, André, and France Rémillard. 2000. L’ Archéologue et la Conservation. Quebec: Centre de Conservation du Québec.

Brouague, Marcel de. 1923. Divers Mémoires de M. de Brouague au Conseil de Marine, Rapport de l’Archiviste de la Proncince de Québec pour 1922-23, pp. 356-406. Ls. A. Proulx, Québec.

Davis, Stephen. 2007. Textiles, Vannerie et Fibres. In Grenier, Robert, Marc-André Bernier, Willis Stevens. 2007. L’archéologie subaquatique de Red Bay, la construction navale et la pêche de la baleine basques au XVIe siècle. Ottawa: Parks-Canada.

Drouin, Pierre. 1988. Des Baleiniers Basques à l’Ile Nue de Mingan. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 12:1-15.

Dumais, Pierre, and Jean Poirier. 1994. Témoignage d’un Site Archéologique Inuit, Baie des Belles Amours, Basse-Côte-Nord. Recherches Amérindiennes au Québec 24(1-2):18-30.

Fitzhugh, William W. 2001. The Gateways Project 2001: Archaeological Survey of the Quebec Lower North Shore, Gulf of St. Lawrence, from Mingan to Blanc Sablon. 90 pp. Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution. Report on file at the Ministry of Culture and Communication, Quebec.

Fitzhugh, William W. 2006. Cultures, Borders, and Basques: Archaeological Surveys on Quebec’s Lower North Shore. In: From the Arctic to Avalon: Papers in Honour of James A. Tuck. Edited by Lisa Rankin and Peter Ramsden, pp. 53-70. British Archaeological Reports International Series 1507.

Fitzhugh, William W. 2009. Exploring Cultural Boundaries: the ’Invisible’ Inuit of Southern Labrador and Quebec. On the Track of the Thule Culture from Bering Strait to East Greenland, edited by Bjarne Grønnow, pp. 129-148. Studies in Archaeology and History, 15. National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen.

Fitzhugh, William W., and others (eds.). 2001-2012. Annual St. Lawrence Gateways Project Field Reports. Published annually by Arctic Studies Center, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Copies on file at Government of Quebec, Ministry of Culture and Communication and published online: http://www.mnh.si.edu/arctic/html/pub_field.html.

Fitzhugh, William W. , and Erik Phaneuf. 2006-2012. St. Lawrence Gateways Project Annual Reports published in The Provincial Archaeology Office Newsletter. Provincial Archaeology Office, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador. Department of Tourism, Culture, and Recreation. St. John’s, Newfoundland. http://www.tcr.gov.nl.ca/tcr/pao/Newsletters/Newsletters.htm

Fitzhugh, William W., Anja Herzog, Sophia Perdikaris, and Brenna McLeod. 2006. Ship to Shore: Inuit, Basques, and Maritime Landscapes in the Northern Gulf of St. Lawrence. In Maritime Archaeological Landscapes: Terrestrial and Underwater Sites, edited by Ben Ford, pp 99-128. Society for Historical Archaeology. Springer Publications.

Ford, Benjamin. 2009. Hare Harbor- 1 (EdBt-3) 2008 Underwater Site Report. In The Gateways Project 2008: Land and Underwater Excavations at Hare Harbor, Mecatina. Published by The Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution, pp 74-94.

Grenier, Robert, Marc-Andre Bernier, and Willis Stevens (eds.). 2007. The Underwater Archaeology of Red Bay: Basque Shipbuilding and Whaling in the 16th Century. 4 vols. Parks Canada.

Herzog, Anja. 2008. L’Île du Petit Mécatina sur la Basse-Côte-Nord du Québec: Résultats Préliminaires des Analyses Céramiques d’ un Site Voué aux Activités de Pêche Saisonnière dans le Golfe du Saint-Laurent entre le XVIe et le XVIIIe Siècle. In Les actes du 133e congrès du Comité des travaux historiques et scientifiques, Québec 2 to 6 June, 2008.

Herzog, Anja. 2009. Petit Mécatina Island: Basque and French Whalers and Cod-Fishers in the Gulf of St. Lawrence from the 16th to the 18th Centuries. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Council for Northeast Historical Archaeology, held at Québec, 15-18 October, 2009.

Herzog, Anja. 2010. The Study of Petit Mécatina 3 and the History of Whaling and Cod-Fishing in the Gulf of St. Lawrence During the 16th to the early 18th Century. Paper presented at the 2010 Conference on Historical and Underwater Archaeology, held at Amelia Island, Florida, 6-9 January, 2010.

Hume, Ivor Noel. 2001. A Guide to the Artifacts of Colonial America. May 2001: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Huxley, Selma (Barkham). 1987. Los Vascos y las Pescerias Transatlanticas (1517-1713) [Basque fisheries in the North Atlantic (1517-1713]. Edited by E. Ayerbe and S. Huxley. Pp. 26-210. Eusko Kultur Eragintza ETOR. Donostia-San Sebastian.

Levesque, René. 2002. Bible d’ Aménagement du Saint-Laurent Fleuve, Estuaire, Golfe. Phase Premier. La Basse-Côte-Nord: Porte Priviliégée des Pionniers d’ Amérique. Draft manuscript available from the author and on file at Arctic Studies Center.

Loewen, Brad. 2009. Historical Data on the Impact of 16th-Century Basque Whaling on Right and Bowhead Whales in the Western North Atlantic. Canadian Zooarchaeology 26:3-24.

Loewen, Brad, and Vincent Delmas. 2011. Les occupations basques dans le golfe du Saint-Laurent, 1530-1760. Periodisation, repartition géographique et culture matérialle. Archaeologiques 24:23-55.

Loewen, Brad, and Vincent Delmas. 2012. The Basques in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and Adjacent Shores. Canadian Journal of Archaeology 36(2).

McLeod, B.A., M.W. Brown, M.J. Moore, W. Stevens, S.H. Barkham, M. Barkham, and B.N. White. 2008. Bowhead Whales, and Not Right Whales, Were the Primary Target of 16th- to 17th-Century Basque Whalers in the Western North Atlantic. Arctic 61(1):61-75.

Martin, Charles A. 1974. Arhaeological Research on the Lower Saint-Lawrence North Shore, Quebec. In Archaeological Salvage Projects 1972, edited by W.J. Byrne. Mercury Series Paper 15:112-130. Ottawa: Archaeological Survey of Canada.

Martin, Charles A. 1980. La Présence Inuit sur la Côte-Nord du Golfe St.-Lawrent à l’ Epoque Historique. Etudes/Inuit/Studies 4(1-2):105-125.

Martin, Charles A., and Norman Chance. 1980. Les Inuit du Québec-Labrador Méridional [The Inuit of Southern Quebec-Labrador]. Etudes/Inuit/Studies 4(1-2).

Mémoria Historiens. 2012. Petit Mécatina: Preliminary Historical Report. Contract report prepared by Mémoria Historiens, March 28, 2012, on file at Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution.

Niellon, Francoise, and A. McGain. 1987. La Station Baleinière Basque de la Baie du Milieu: Recherche Archéologique 1987 sur le Site EiBi-10. Québec. Report on file at Ministère de la Culture et de la Communications. Québec.

Oyarbide, Lourdes Odriozola. 2012. Report on Basque Archive Research. Iketearch: Respuesta a las Preguntas del Informe de Marzo de 2012. Contract report on file at Arctic Studies Center, Smithsonian Institution.

Phaneuf, Erik and Vincent Delmas. 2013. Hare Harbor-1 Underwater Report for 2012 Season. In: The Gateways Project 2012: Land and Underwater Excavations at Hare harbor, Petit Mecatina, and Little Canso Island. Pp. 121-130. Arctic Studies Center, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution. Copies on file at Government of Quebec, Ministry of Culture and Communication and published online: http://www.mnh.si.edu/arctic/html/pub_field.html (see also reports by Phaneuf in previous Gateways Project online reports)

Pintal, Jean-Yves. 1998. Aux Frontiéres de la Mer: La Préhistoire de Blanc-Sablon. Coll. Dossiers 102, Ministére de la Culture, Quebec.

Proulx, Jean-Pierre. 1993. Les Basques et la Pêche de la Baleine au Labrador au XVIe Siècle. Etudes en Archaéologie, Architecture, et Histoire. Lieux Historiques Nationaux, Service de Parcs, Environment Canada. Ontario.

Proulx, Jean-Pierre. 2007. Basque whaling in Labrador: an Historical Overview. In The Underwater Archaeology of Red Bay: Basque Shipbuilding and Whaling in the 16th Century. 4 vols. Pp. I:25-96. Ottawa: Parks Canada.

Robertson, Samuel. 1843. Notes on the Coast of Labrador. Transactions of the Literary and Historical Society of Québec 4(1):27-53.

Stevens, Willis, and Stephen L. Cumbaa. 2007. Archéologie et archéozoologie marines de Red Bay : port baleinier du XVIe siècle in Grenier, Robert, Marc-André Bernier, Willis Stevens. 2007. L’ archéologie subaquatique de Red Bay, la construction navale et la pêche de la baleine basques au XVIe siècle. Parks-Canada.

St. Germaine, Claire. 2011. Appendix 2: Faunal Analysis of Finds 2002-2009. In The Gateways Project 2010: Land Excavations at Hare Harbor, Mécatina by W. W. Fitzhugh. Arctic Studies Center. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution.

Stopp, Marianne. 2002. Reconsidering Inuit Presence in Southern Labrador. Etudes/Inuit/Studies 26(2):710106.

Taylor, J. Garth. 1980. The Inuit of southern Quebec-Labrador: Reviewing the Evidence. Etudes/Inuit/Studies 4(1-2):185-194.

Trudel, François. 1978. L’ impact des Pecheries Sédentaires Françoises sur les Inuit dans la Région du Détroit de Belle-Isle. Un Survol Historique. Actes de la Première Conférence sur les Inuit, Octobre 1978. Quebec: Université Laval.

Trudel, François. 1980. Les Relations Entre les Français et les Inuit au Labrador Méridional, 1660-1760. études/Inuit/Studies 4(1-2):135-146.

Tuck, James A. 1982. A Sixteenth Century Whaling Station at Red Bay, Labrador. In Early European Settlement and Exploitation in Atlantic Canada, edited by G. M. Story. Pp. 41-52. St. John's: Memorial University of Newfoundland.

Tuck, James A. 1983-86. Excavations at Red Bay, Labrador. In Archaeology in Newfoundland and Labrador 1982-1986, edited by Jane Sproull Thomson and Callum Thomson. Annual Reports no. 3:95-117, 4:70-81, 5:224-247, and 6:150-158. St John's: Historical Resources Division, Government of Newfoundland and Labrador.

Tuck, James A., and Robert Grenier. 1989. Red Bay, Labrador: World Whaling Capital, A.D. 1550-1600. Atlantic Archaeology, Ltd. St. John’ s, Newfoundland.

Turgeon, Laurier. 1994. Vers une chronologie des occupations basques du Saint-Laurent du XVIe –XVIIe siècle: un retour à l’ histoire. Recherches Amérindiennes au Québec 24(3) :3-15.

Turgeon, Laurier. 1995. Pêcheurs basques du Labourd en Atlantique nord (XVIe-XVIIIe siècle): ports, routes et trafics. In Itsas Memoria. Revista de Estudios Maritimos del Pais Vasco 3:163-178.